Community based Animal health and welfare: (8 pages)
Page 2: Community Animal Healthcare


BOOKS

COMMUNITY-BASED ANIMAL HEALTHCARE: A PRACTICAL GUIDE TO IMPROVING PRIMARY VETERINARY SERVICES

Note: now also available in French

A partnership between Vetwork UK, the Participatory Community-based Animal Health and Vaccination (PARC-VAC) Project, Organisation of African Unity / Inter-African Bureau for Animal Resources, and Intermediate Technology Publications (now called Practical Action). Written by a team of veterinarians and livestock professionals with field experience of community-based projects in Africa and Asia, the guide contains contributions and case studies from projects around the world, presented as text boxes, stories, anecdotes, diagrams, cartoons and photographs.

Chapter 1: Introduction
Chapter 2: Getting started
Chapter 3: Taking a long-term perspective: sustainability issues
Chapter 4: Participative training methods and approaches
Chapter 5: How to design and implement training courses
Chapter 6: Monitoring and assessment of community based animal health projects
Chapter 7: CAHWs and disease surveillance
Chapter 8: The rules of the game and how to influence policy
Chapter 9: Sharing experiences and networking
List of Contributors
Further Reading
Index

The book can be ordered through: Development Bookshop, Practical Action Publishing, The Schumacher Centre, Bourton on Dunsmore, Rugby, Warwickshire,CV23 9QZ. Also available online


NETWORKS & WEBSITES

CAHNET network - Community-Based Animal HealthCare Network
An network  hosted in East Africa dealing with all issues relating to Community-Based Animal HealthCare.
Community Animal Health Network, P O Box 1073, 100606, Nairobi, Kenya

ARTICLES & REPORTS

Veterinary support visit to Pets Welfare Association (PWA), Lesotho
Community Participatory Evaluation Report of the OLS Livestock Programme, Gogrial County, South Sudan, VSF Germany 2003
Report of participatory monitoring and evaluation with the Dutch Committee for Afghanistan
Delivery of private veterinarian supervised community-based animal health services to pastoralist areas of the greater horn of Africa 1999.
Delivery of animal health services in eastern Africa 1998.
Community-based animal health services in southern Sudan: the experience so far 1998.
Community-based animal health care in Somali areas of Africa: a review 1999.
Veterinary services in the Somali national regional state, Ethiopia: a situation analysis 1997.
Community-based animal health services in the greater horn of Africa: an assessment for USAID 1998.
A review of the Oxfam UK/Ireland Kotido livestock development project (animal health component), Kotido district, Karamoja 1997.
A critical analysis of the selection and support of community livestock workers in Ghana 1999.
Assessing the impact of community animal health care programmes: some experiences from Ghana 1999.

Consultancy report on the implications of privatisation to the curriculum of the Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Univeristy of Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, 1998.

 

Community Participatory Evaluation Report of the OLS Livestock Programme, Gogrial County, South Sudan VSF GERMANY. Emergency Veterinary Support to Livestock Owners in Southern Sudan. June 2003

Hopkins, C.

Section 1 gives an introduction to the community participatory evaluation (CPE). Section 2 discusses the methodology used during the CPE. Section 3 is a review of the CBAHP. Section 4 looks at rural livelihoods, community capital assets, livestock production constraints and trends in the nutritional status of children in Gogrial county. Section 5 is the clarification of the CBAHP work plan and Section 6 lists the main conclusions and recommendations of the CPE exercise. Full report in .pdf format

Report of participatory monitoring and evaluation consultancy visit to Dutch Committee for Afghanistan - Herat, 1998.

Blakeway, S. Vetwork UK, Edinburgh.

This is a report of a consultancy to develop the monitoring and evaluation system for and with the DCA programme based in Herat. DCA wishes to monitor and evaluate the impact of its programme on the lives of the people it serves. To supplement monitoring and evaluation activities to date, DCA intended to collect data which was richer in social analysis and which measured impact from the point of view of the programme’s intended beneficiaries. Full report in .pdf format

Delivery Of Private Veterinarian Supervised Community-Based Animal Health Services To Pastoralist Areas Of The Greater Horn Of Africa 1999

Leyland,T. and Akabwai, D.M.O.
Abstract: Within the context of restructuring of government veterinary services and the liberalisation of pharmaceutical supplies, various models using participatory techniques are being developed to establish fully privatised pastoral veterinary practices. The paper describes and discusses the various approaches being used to establish such private practices. Major lessons learnt in delivering community-based animal health services (CAHS) and key issues to address in order to make such services sustainable are highlighted. Diagrammatic models of the delivery systems used are described. The paper discusses methods in which these relatively new, privatised and CAHS might best and most rapidly be adopted, by various levels of decision-makers. The paper concludes that private pastoral veterinary practices could be both economically viable and provide needed services if national governments put in place specified policy and legal frameworks that create an enabling environment for them to operate within. full report

"

Delivery of animal health services in Eastern Africa Establishing pastoral veterinary practices: what are the implications for East Africa. 1998
Leyland, T.; Akabwai, D.; Mutungi, P.M. CAPE, OAU , 1998
The paper describes and discusses the various approaches being used to establish private pastoral veterinary practices. This has occurred within the context of:

  • restructuring of government veterinary services
  • the liberalisation of pharmaceutical supplies, using participatory techniques
  • the liberalisation of various animal health delivery systems.


The article finds that community-based animal health delivery systems (CAHS) do have a very significant impact on improving livestock owners' productivity and food security. The projections made allow the authors to predict that privatised pastoral veterinary practices could be sustainable in remote areas.
In order to verify this, the following activities are recommended:

  • more CAHS pilot projects are initiated
  • further economic analysis of benefits and costs and impact assessments of CAHS are carried out
  • a networking organisation starts in order to transfer information about lessons learnt methodologies and economic viability.

    The article recommends that veterinary authorities, associations and privatisation schemes in Eastern Africa:
  • recognise and certify the roles played by CAHWs, certificate and diploma holders
  • enact policy and legislative reform to allow veterinary supervised CAHSs to be encouraged and legalised
  • formulate and establish start up schemes for private vets wishing to work in Arid and Semi Arid Lands (ASAL) areas.
    full report in .pdf format (download time might be prolonged)

 

Community-Based Animal Health Services In Southern Sudan: The Experience So Far 1999

Jones BA, Deemer, B, Leyland TJ, Mogga, W and Stem, E. UNICEF/OLS Livestock Programme, PARC-VAC Project, OAU/IBAR.
Abstract: The experience of facilitating community-based animal health services (CAHS) in southern Sudan is reviewed. Operation Lifeline Sudan livestock programme started a community-based rinderpest control programme in 1993. In 1994, the programme widened to control of other diseases through development of CAHS; activities included participatory baseline surveys, community dialogue to identify priorities and develop social contracts, training of community-based animal health workers, Animal Health Auxiliaries and Stockpersons, development of Veterinary Coordination Committees, and monitoring. Currently there are 1,057 animal health workers providing services to 80% of agro-pastoralist areas. There has been a 12% drop out rate. More than 1 million cattle have been vaccinated against rinderpest annually since 1993 and increasing numbers of other vaccinations and treatments provided for cattle, sheep, goats and poultry. Constraints include insecurity, poor access, lack of mobility, minimal infrastructure and trade, lack of veterinarians and climatic extremes. CAHS in an under-developed agro-pastoralist community such as southern Sudan is a viable method of delivering basic animal health services, and can form the base on which to build a sustainable private veterinarian-supervised CAHS.  full report

CAHS: viable method of delivering basic animal health services 1998
Jones, B.; Deemer, B; Leyland, T.J.; Mogga, W.; Stem, E. CAPE, OAU , 1998
This article reviews the experience of facilitating community-based animal health services (CAHS) in southern Sudan.
The article finds that:

  • constraints to such initiatives include insecurity, poor access, lack of mobility, minimal infrastructure and trade, lack of veterinarians and climatic extremes
  • community-based animal health services (CAHS) in an under-developed agro-pastoralist community such as southern Sudan is a viable method of delivering basic animal health services
  • CAHS can form the base on which to build a sustainable private veterinarian-supervised CAHS.

full report in .pdf format (download time might be prolonged)

Community-based animal health care in Somali areas of Africa: a review. 1999
Commissioned by the PARC-VAC Project, Organisation for African Unity/Inter-African Bureau for Animal Resources (OUA/IBAR), Nairobi, Kenya. (60 pages). Andy Catley.
This review is based on the question "are community-based animal health systems a realistic option for improving primary veterinary services in Somalia?"
The article finds that:

  • experience in Southern Sudan suggests that well-coordinated, large-scale community animal health worker (CAHW) systems can form the basis for improved service delivery in conflict zones
  • reviews of CAHW projects in dryland areas of Kenya demonstrate substantial cost-benefit through the prevention or treatment of a few important livestock diseases
  • within Somali pastoral communities generally, there is a high demand for animal health services
  • the Somali pastoral economy is closely linked to an active livestock export trade and the market orientation of livestock production systems is increasing
  • CAHW systems appear to be highly relevant to Somalia/Somaliland
  • there are opportunities to work with the private sector to expand basic services into pastoral areas
  • ineffective or dishonest CAHWs are not tolerated by the communities who select them and pay their incentives.

full report in .pdf format (download time might be prolonged)

Veterinary services in the Somali national regional state, Ethiopia: a situation analysis. 1997
Save the Children (UK)-Regional Bureau of Agriculture Veterinary Services Support Project, Somali National Regional State.
Catley,A., Mohammed Sh.Said, Mohammed Ali Farah, Ahmed Sh.Mohammed and Ismail M.Handule (1997). SCF(UK), PO Box 7165, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. (44 pages).
An attempt to combine the results of stakeholder workshops on veterinary service delivery with a more conventional assessment of material and financial resources, and a review of scientific literature (44 pages).
full report in .pdf format

Community based animal health services in the greater horn of Africa: an assessment. 1998
USAID - Office of Foreign Disaster Assistance in cooperation with the USDA - Famine Mitigation Activity
Catley,A., Delaney,P. and McCauley,H., April - May 1998. OFDA/USAID, Washington D.C..

What factors contributed to the success of 'community based animal health worker' programs in Kenya, southern Sudan and Ethiopia?
Catley, A.; Delaney, P.; McCauley, H. / Community-based Animal Health and Participatory Epidemiology Unit (CAPE), OAU , 1998
An assessment of two OFDA funded community based animal health worker (CAHW) projects which found that:

  • the sustainability of CAHW development relies on the degree of integrity of financial management of drug inputs and a satisfactory remuneration for the individual CAHW's.
  • financial transactions through private sector channels without the involvement of committeesor associations were most sustainable. Generally, many committee-managed revolving funds were found to break-down in short order.
  • the privatisation scheme in Kenya was successful in establishing private veterinary practices in high potential areas indicating that extending such could enhance the move of CAHW programs toward integration into the private sector.


The assessment concludes:

  • both the projects achieved excellent results in improved animal health
  • both benefited longer term sustainable animal health services to pastoralists via local institution building and policy reform initiatives
  • the projects have laid foundations relevant to the relief-to development continuum despite the emergency situation in the region.


The authors go on to suggest that the CAHW approach can also act as an effective point of contact with remote, pastoral communities leading to other potential benefits such as human health service delivery, conflict mitigation and cross-boarder livestock disease control.
[adapted from authors]  full report in .pdf format (download time might be prolonged)

A review of the Oxfam UK/Ireland Kotido livestock development project (animal health component), Kotido District, Karamoja. 1997
Consultancy Report for the Renewable Natural Resources Sector, Overseas Development Administration (UK), Uganda, March 1997. Andy Catley, Vetwork UK, Edinburgh.
A review of Oxfam’s community-based animal health work in Karamoja, particularly in relation to participatory approaches and Oxfam’s gender work.
full report in .pdf format

Assessing the impact of community animal health care programmes: some experiences from Ghana. What constraints limit the effectiveness of community livestock workers? 1999
Hanks, J.; Oakeley, R.; Opoku, H,; Dasebu, S.; Asaga, J. / Community-based Animal Health and Participatory Epidemiology Unit (CAPE), OAU , 1999
Half of all the community livestock workers (CLWs) studied were found to have a good to excellent impact upon animal health care services. The evidence also showed improvement in the accessibility of services with knock on benefits for production and producer welfare. Where CLWs had achieved less impact a number of constraints were identified:

  • supply of equipment was the main limitation with kits arriving incomplete and / or months after completion of training. CLWs suffered loss of confidence in their new skills and lost support in the community as a result of not having immediate access.
  • supply of basic equipment is therefore a priority with the provision of additional equipment, such as transport and protective clothing, secondary.
  • no training in basic business management was available to CLWs resulting in difficulties for some in re-stocking supplies
  • the level of impact of CLWs was dependent upon their level of contact with veterinary and extension staff. High levels of contact and strong relationships produced better results
  • government restructuring had led to some CLWs being supported by staff with insufficient skills. Account needs to be taken of specialised skill requirements when allocating staff to their areas of operation
  • many producers were unclear as to the precise role and training of CLWs which limited their effectiveness
  • direct community control of equipment and CLWs resources was problematic and they were more effective when they set their own fee rates with the support of the community.

full report in .pdf format (download time might be prolonged)

A critical analysis of the selection and support of community livestock workers in Ghana. Whas has been the impact of the Community Livestock Worker (CLW) programme in Ghana? 1999
Hanks, J.; Oakeley, R.; Opoku, H.; Dasebu, S.; Asaga, J. / Community-based Animal Health and Participatory Epidemiology Unit (CAPE), OAU , 1999
This study explores the impact of the Community Livestock Worker (CLW) programme in Ghana.
The article finds that:

  • half of Ghanian CLWs are having good to excellent impact
  • inadequate information regarding the role and responsibilities of CLW is provided to district and field level veterinary and extension staff
  • poor flow of information restricts the selection of appropriate trainees
  • there is a direct relationship between the selection process for CLWs and their ultimate success and sustainability
  • producer groups, including women producers, are the most effective at selecting effective CLWs
  • wider community participation or representation does not guarantee effective selection
  • livestock ownership and literacy are common criteria for selection, but there is no apparent correlation between this and success
  • there is male bias amongst both selector groups and CLWs
  • training is effective but gaps remain
  • contact between CLWs and supervisors is variable, but is of real importance
  • effective programme monitoring requires improved procedures and co-operation between supervisors and community leaders
  • the impact of decentralisation on the supervision of CLWs should be carefully monitored

full report in .pdf format (download time might be prolonged)

Consultancy report on the implications of privatisation to the curriculum of the Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Univeristy of Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, 1998. European Union Pan African Rinderpest Campaign Ethiopia Programme. Oranjewoud International B.V. in association with RDP Livestock Services B.V.

Blakeway S., Gebregziaber M, Meskel M., Okwiri F. and Zwart D.

The mission arose through PARC’s mandate to investigate and recommend means by which the efficiency of veterinary services can be improved with the aim of eradicating rinderpest through reform of veterinary services. The aim of this report is to suggest ways in which the present curriculum of the Faculty of Veterinary Medicine could be developed in the light of changes in the structure of the veterinary profession, particularly with regard to the needs of future animal health personnel (public or private) working within a mixed public/private animal health service. It is one of many contributions to the current wide ranging review and revision of the curriculum of the Faculty of Veterinary Medicine (Debre Zeit).

full report