Community based Animal health and welfare: (8 pages)
Page 3: EVK / local knowledge

NETWORKS & WEBSITES

PRELUDE Database of Veterinary Medicinal Plants of Africa
compiled and hosted in Belgium
to PRELUDE Database

ETHNOVETWEB - the ethno-veterinary website
The site is about ethnoveterinary medicine, or how people around the world keep their animals healthy and productive, and how development can build on this information.
Content:

  • Introducing ethnoveterinary medicine (about ethnoveterinary medicine, its study and application in development)
  • News (announcements, conferences and events)
  • Resources & links (mailing lists, on-line journals, websites and organizations)
  • Publications (books, papers and other documents on ethnoveterinary medicine including a few downloadable abstracts and full texts)
  • Projects (information about ethnoveterinary projects around the world)


Please send any information you regard as suitable for the website to evelynmathias@netcologne.de. The section 'Projects' of the Ethnovetweb informs on projects focussing on ethnoveterinary medicine and its application in development. Examples are animal healthcare and extension projects, research studies, and training courses.
to ETHNOVETWEB website


ARTICLES & REPORTS

Ethnoveterinary medicine: Alternatives for livestock development: Proceedings of an international conference held in Pune, India. 1997. Volume 1: Selected Papers.
Ethnoveterinary medicine: Alternatives for livestock development: Proceedings of an international conference held in Pune, India. 1997. Volume 2: Abstracts.
Integrated approach for animal health care: Proceedings of the international seminar held at Kozhikode, India. 1999. Volume 1: Abstracts.
Ethno-veterinary knowledge of the Dinka and Nuer in Southern Sudan 1996.
Nuer ethno-veterinary knowledge: a resource manual findings of a preliminary study 1996.
Some ethnoveterinary information from south sudan 2002.
Karamojong scientists: participatory field trial of a local dewormer 2000.
Learning about Liei: participatory diagnosis of the chronic wasting problem in cattle in southern Sudan 2000.
Participatory research on bovine trypanosomosis in Orma cattle, Tana River District, Kenya 2000.

Ethnoveterinary research with farmers in Amhara National Regional State, Ethiopia 2004

Ethnoveterinary medicine: alternatives for livestock development: Proceedings of an international conference held in Pune, India, 4-6 November 1997.

Both Volumes of the Proceedings of this Conference are now on the internet in 10 files (9 for Volume 1, 1 for Volume 2):

Volume 1: Selected Papers: 9 files
Summary of contents, Preface, Acknowledgements
Introduction & Part 1: Applied studies of ethnoveterinary systems
Part 2: Validation of Ethnoveterinary Medicine
Part 3: Ethnoveterinary medicinal plants and plant medicines
Part 4: Application of ethnoveterinary medicine
Part 5: Education
Annexes
Tables 1-4 from Paper 'Scope of homoeopathy in veterinary practice', Part 4
Table 'Ethnoveterinary Projects' from Annexes

Volume 2: Abstracts: 1 file
Abstracts

Integrated approach for animal health care: Proceedings of the international seminar held at Kozhikode, India on 4-6 February 1999. Volume 1: Abstracts
This seminar looked at the integration of ethno-veterinary medicine with allopathic drugs and vaccines in animal health services, with case studies from all around the world.
full report

Ethno-veterinary knowledge of the Dinka and Nuer in Southern Sudan. Studying ethnic knowledge of animal health and treatment with a view to integrating it into existing livestock health programmes. 1996
Adolph, A.; Blakeway, S.; Linquist, B. J. / CAPE, OAU , 1996

This report catalogues the ethno-veterinary knowledge (EVK) and local veterinary knowledge of the Dinka and Nuer peoples with a view to integrating this knowledge into community animal health services. It attempts to do this recognising that such work can also help to support and strengthen local culture. The study comprised of interviews, observation and collection of medicinal plant varieties.
Whilst identifying the key features of EVK in the region the study found that:

  • EVK is deemed peripheral to community animal health services (OLS Livestock programme) with little available training for programme workers
  • community animal health services tendency to focus on the few most important diseases using western veterinary treatments can take knowledge out of the public domain and threaten the loss of EVK
  • the OLS programmes 'action orientated approach' does not integrate well with local practices
  • there are many opportunities for better integration


The authors recommend:

  • steps to ensure that livestock programmes frame their work more in the context of existing local knowledge making EVK central to their approach.
  • additional ongoing research into EVK
  • further research into why EVK has stayed outside the programme despite its use of best practice development methodology in dialogue with the communities involved.

full report in .pdf format (download time might be prolonged)

Nuer ethno-veterinary knowledge: a resource manual findings of a preliminary study. Nuer veterinary knowledge and western veterinary knowledge: can they complement one another? 2001
Blakeway, S.; Linquist, B.J.; Adolph, D. / Community-based Animal Health and Participatory Epidemiology Unit (CAPE), OAU , 2001
This study is associated with the OLS Livestock Programme. The study attempts to investigate whether the work of the programme could be better integrated with local Nuer veterinary knowledge and practice.
The article finds that:

  • it is both possible and desirable to fit ‘western’ veterinary medicine within the framework of what the Nuer (and other groups in Southern Sudan) already do to maintain the health of their animals
  • the best livestock programme for Southern Sudan will result from a combination of the best of both local and western knowledge.

full report in .pdf format (download time might be prolonged)

Some Ethnoveterinary Information from South Sudan. 2002
by Tim Fison BA, VetMB, MRCVS (64 pages)
Preamble: This article on EVK in Southern Sudan is simply an initial attempt to present some local veterinary and livestock husbandry practices. The author makes no claims that it is a comprehensive account. For example, the sections on clinical signs and treatments of diseases in goat, sheep and chickens are not yet finished. It is very much a 'work in progress' and should be viewed as a basis for discussion and further improvement: it is a rough-hewn document needing editing and refining. Much more cross-checking and rigorous translations are needed. However, if it is of some help to new people starting to do livestock work in South Sudan and serves as a stimulus to further EVK documentation, then it will have served some purpose.
A Word or .rtf version of this document (including the above Preamble and Acknowledgements which are missing from the .pdf version) is available by e-mail from Vetwork.
full report in .pdf format (download time might be prolonged)

Karamojong Scientists: Participatory Field Trial of a Local Dewormer. 2000
Presented at the Uganda Veterinary Association Scientific Conference, ‘The Veterinary Profession and Poverty Alleviation' 28-29 September, 2000
Dr. Jean T. Grade & and Mr. Longok Anthony, Christian Veterinary Mission/World Concern, P.O. Box 22, Moroto, Karamoja. ethnovet@maf.org
Abstract: The pastoralists of the arid-semi-arid and insecure Karamoja of Northeastern Uganda rely upon their livestock for their livelihood and have developed many local techniques and medicines to insure their health. This paper shares findings of ongoing participatory field trials of Albezia anthelmentica as an economically viable way to deworm their livestock. Twenty local and privately owned animals were divided into control and test groups with a Karamojong traditional healer and herdsmen performing all aspects of the experiment. As compared to the negative control, A. anthelmentica was 76.3% efficacious at 12 days post treatment, 69.4% at 16 days and 77.2% at 19 days. The percent reduction of fecal egg counts were 76.3% at 12days, 96.3% at 16days and 80.4% at 19 days post treatment. While the trials are still ongoing, the authors are encouraged by the preliminary validation trial of A. anthelmentica and the Karamojong's technical abilities.
full report

Learning about Liei: participatory diagnosis of the chronic wasting problem in cattle in southern Sudan. Participatory diagnosis: a fertile method for investigating cattle wasting diseases in southern Sudan. 2000
Catley, A. CAPE, OAU , 2000

This article discusses a cattle disease called liei or noi, a disease predominantly found in Southern Sudan.
The article finds that:

  • these diseases present a special challenge to a community-based programme that covers a large area characterised by very poor infrastructure, minimal laboratory facilities and operational constraints such as severe conflict
  • few workers in southern Sudan have considered livestock diseases according to the clinical syndromes that are observed in the field and the notion that chronically sick cattle may be infected with more than one disease agent
  • researchers have not always related recommendations about disease control to the ability of veterinary agencies to deliver relevant services to livestock keepers, and the capacity of livestock keepers to pay for these services
  • livestock keepers in southern Sudan characterise chronic wasting disease in cattle using criteria that are very similar to those used by veterinarians
  • the local disease names liei and noi encompass various diseases that are recognised by veterinarians. These 'western' diseases occur as single entities and as mixed infections involving up to four groups
  • there is little evidence to indicate that either livestock owners or veterinary workers could distinguish between different infections and combinations of infections on clinical grounds alone


The article recommended that the following work be done in the future:

  • testing different combinations of drugs for the treatment of liei and noi
  • encouraging the wider use of basic veterinary investigation methods
  • investigation into the limitations of training courses based on specific western diseases rather than the clinical syndromes that are observed in the field.

full report in .pdf format (download time might be prolonged)

Participatory research on bovine trypanosomosis in Orma cattle, Tana River District, Kenya. Participatory research: a fertile methodology for improving disease control among Kenyan pastoralists? 2000
Catley, A.; Irungu, P. CAPE, OAU , 2000
This report describes small-scale participatory research on bovine trypanosomosis with Orma pastoralist communities in Tana River District (Kenya). The research aimed to combine the perspectives of researchers and livestock keepers to identify ‘best bet’ interventions to improve disease control. The participatory research methodology was intended to initiate a partnership between researchers and communities leading to action, and in turn, further learning and refinement of project activities.
The article finds that:

  • as the work progressed a number of resource and sustainability issues emerged which indicated that community-based traps or targets were unlikely to be sustained in the four study villages
  • this prompted the researchers to rethink their own assessment of the control options available
  • ‘Improved use of trypanocides’ was considered by the researchers to be the most appropriate control intervention. This is an opinion that was verified by community representatives
  • participatory assessment leads to the ongoing improvement resarch activities


The article recommends that:

  • participatory research is used to quantify trypanocidal drug use. This research would provide the baseline data against which the impact of future activities could be measured
  • identify a herd(s) in each village for assessment of trypanocidal resistance. Implement field research to assess levels of resistance
  • using the results from above recommendations, design and implement participative training courses on ‘better use of trypanocides’
  • conduct impact assessment. Measure levels of knowledge and use of trypanocidal drugs relative to baseline data.

full report in .pdf format (download time might be prolonged)

Report on the promotion of ethnoveterinary medicine through farmer association and participatory research November 2004. Relief to Development Project, North Wollo and Waghamra Zones, Amhara National Regional State, Save the Children UK, Ethiopia.
Bishop, S. Vetwork UK
The results of this study, conducted in 2001, provided the basis for SC-UK to develop an ethnoveterinary medicine (EVM) component in their Relief to Development (R2D) project which is being undertaken from 2002-2005. The approach used by the team revolved around participatory discussions with healers and farmers in order to explore the key issues such as popularity of traditional veterinary medicine and other animal health service providers, ways of promoting EVM, in particular by providing support to healers, and validation of plant remedies through farmer participatory research (FPR).

full report in .pdf format